Category: Papers

  • A Comprehensive Regulatory Model for Managing Refrigerant and Servicing Sector in Bahrain

    Table of contents Abstract When the Kingdom of Bahrain ratified the Vienna Convention for the protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in the early 1990s as well as the adopting the HCFCs Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP) in 2015, several advanced steps were taken to achieve […]

  • The Power of Partnership in the Development of Kigali Implementation Plans

    Table of contents If you want to guarantee a success to the implementation of the Kigali Implementation Plans (KIPs), you shall start from building a strong multifaceted partnership on the national and international levels. This postulate has been proved by many years of my experience of working with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete […]

  • Education and Civil Society Engagement in Residential Air Conditioning Sector in Brazil

    Table of contents Abstract This paper explains how Brazil in the air conditioning (AC) sector has responded to the 2016 Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) in a project funded by The Kigali Cooling Efficiency Programme (K-CEP) implemented by the Instituto Clima e Sociedade (ICS). When […]

  • Addressing the needs of Women in Cooling at Global Level

    Table of contents Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning, and Heat-pumps (RACHP) are crucial for our health, nutrition, comfort, and well-being. It is one of the sectors that crosscuts many of the UN sustainable development goals and can contribute significantly to safeguard the environment, advance welfare of humanity and support the growth of employment and economics worldwide. Over 15 […]

  • Speeding Ghana’s Transition to Low-GWP and Energy-Efficient Cooling

    Table of contents Abstract This paper describes how the Ghana Energy Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency’s National Ozone Unit have joined forces in a comprehensive strategy to access and implement low-global warming potential (GWP) and energy-efficient cooling technologies that protect the Earth’s climate and stratospheric ozone layer. This strategy, in line with the objectives […]

  • India’s Decarbonising Strategies for the Built Environment

    Table of contents As we continue to rapidly expand the footprint of the built environment in Urban and semi urban landscapes, the energy to drive mechanical systems increases exponentially. India avowed at the UN Climate Change Conference – COP 26, at Glasgow to become Carbon Neutral in less than 50 years and raise renewable energy […]

  • Mobile Air Conditioning Energy Efficiency

    Table of contents Abstract The Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) contributes with its direct and indirect emissions to the greenhouse effect. The direct effect due the release in the atmosphere of high GWP refrigerant is reducing thanks to the progressive use of low GWP fluids mainly driven by regulations in place in several regions of the […]

  • Upskilling for Sustainability: Building a Green Workforce on Alternative Refrigerants

    Table of contents As a result of the greening of the economy, many existing occupations will have to adapt their skills (Bowen et al. 2018) to align their operations to new markets and business models. According to the World Economic Forum, companies estimate that by 2024 around 40% of workers will require reskilling to ensure […]

  • Mandatory Training on Low-GWP Refrigerants

    Table of contents We are now at midpoint of the continuing “phase down” on the use of HFC refrigerants as detailed within the F Gas regulations. HFC availability has reduced to 45% of that in 2015 and many products placed on the market are now required to utilise refrigerants with GWP’s < 150. This has […]

  • Cooling Keeps Food Fresh: Chefs Promote Cooling’s Benefits to the Public

    Table of contents Most people only think about cooling when they enjoy an ice cream on a hot afternoon or sit in air-conditioned comfort. But we depend upon air conditioning and refrigeration every day for preserving the food in our diets, health care, Internet and cellular access, and through applications which enable manufacturing of products […]