Category: Papers

  • Integrated Approaches in Developing Countries

    Table of contents Introduction Refrigeration capacities are not sufficient in developing countries. They will in any case continue to increase, as they are vital. One of the main international challenges we face in mitigating and adapting to global warming is clearly the possibility of implementing sustainable development in these countries. Actions are underway. The need […]

  • Upgrade to EU F-gas Regulation 3.0

    Table of contents Why upgrading the F-gas Regulation is a must To help meet its declared climate targets, the EU is upgrading its rules on fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) as part of a comprehensive review of all climate relevant legislation. These changes are needed because the EU has stepped up its level of ambition, committing […]

  • Proposal for a Revision of the F-Gas Regulation

    Table of contents AREA Position AREA represents European refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump (RACHP) contractors. RACHP contractors are the essential link between end users and manufacturers. They design, install and maintain RACHP equipment using every available solution with complete neutrality towards equipment and refrigerants, in the sole aim of ensuring the highest level of […]

  • The Future of F-Gas Refrigerants in Europe – Takeaways from 2022 EPEE’s HFC Outlook EU

    Table of contents Europe is simultaneously facing a climate change ‘emergency’ and a geo-political challenge of rapidly decreasing its reliance on imported fossil fuels. Two fundamental strategic questions where a massive rollout of heat pumps is seen by policy makers as large part of the solution.  However, the latest modelling by EPEE raises serious questions […]

  • What Can a Decade Teach Us About How to Keep Cool Without HFCs in a Warming World and How Can We Prepare for the Next Turbulent Decade?

    Table of contents The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns that the window of opportunity to avoid catastrophic impacts of climate change is rapidly closing. The need for clean cooling has never been more pressing and almost a decade after the EU agreed its hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phase-down, energy-efficient cooling technologies relying on climate-friendly […]

  • Progress on Refrigerant Transition, but Work Remains

    Table of contents While a great deal of progress has been made on the transition from HFC refrigerants to the next-generation, low-GWP alternatives, a considerable amount of work remains before we can declare global victory and begin to focus our attention elsewhere.  This paper will explore the current state of the HFC phase down In […]

  • The Benefits and Challenges of Using Low-GWP Refrigerants

    Table of contents Introduction In 2016, the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol treaty recognized the effect that high global warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants have on the environment, and hastened a shift to lower-GWP refrigerants. This transition from legacy HFCs to emerging low-GWP refrigerants is causing component- and system-level architecture changes in both […]

  • Situation of Refrigerants in the HVACR Field

    Table of contents Introduction To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from around the world to net (virtually) zero, there is a strong need to develop heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVACR) equipment that can minimalize the environmental impact. They will be equipment and systems that use refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) to […]

  • Refrigerant Policies and Management in Australia Stepping Up the Phase-Down

    Table of contents Introduction In January 2022 Australia passed another milestone in the phasing down of HFC refrigerants in line with the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. As Australia’s peak body for professionals working in the HVAC&R sector, AIRAH felt the time was right to review the country’s progress and highlight the challenges we […]

  • Towards the Adoption of New Technologies Based on Low-GWP Refrigerants

    Table of contents Tunisia continues its efforts for the phase-out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) through the HCFC Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP) project, and is preparing for the implementation of the requirements under the Kigali Amendment related to the phase-down of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), substances that do not have ozone depleting potential (ODP), but are powerful greenhouse gases […]